What is Peyote/Mescaline?
Description of Peyote/Mescaline?
Peyote is a hallucinogen frequently referred to as a psychedelic drug. The substance is derived from the small, spineless peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii or Lophophora diffusa) which grows in the desert regions of the U.S. Southwest. Protruding nubs or "buttons" are pulled from the crown of the plant and ingested to experience various psychedelic effects. It affects the chemistry in the brain and induces an altered mental state in the user that is commonly referred to as a "trip." The primary active compound in peyote is mescaline, an amphetamine, which can also be produced synthetically in a laboratory. Because this cactus has a limited growing area, the supply is very limited, manufacturers sell synthetic compounds such as PCP or LSD as mescaline. Neither peyote nor mescaline are approved for medical use in the U.S., and both are included as Schedule I hallucinogens as part of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).
What is the Scientific Name of Peyote/Mescaline?
- Lophophora Williams II
- Lophophora Diffusa
What is the Chemical Formula of Peyote/Mescaline?C11H17NO3 (Mescaline Chemical Formula)
What is the Origin of Peyote/Mescaline?
Peyote has a very long history of use, going back as far as Pre-Columbian Mexico, where Aztecs considered it magical and incorporated it in religious rites. Other Native American groups used it as a medical remedy, to communicate with spirits, and for certain religious rituals. The Native American Church was formed in 1918 in order to protect the Native American right to use peyote as part of their religious observances, until the U.S. Supreme Court overturned that right in 1990 (Employment Division v. Smith). It is one of the oldest psychedelic agents known. In 1919, Ernst Spath created the first synthetic version of mescaline.
What is the Legal Status of Peyote/Mescaline in the US?
Peyote/Mescaline is a Schedule I Drug.
What are the Common Street Names of Peyote/Mescaline?
- Bad Seed
- Half Moon
- Cactus Buttons
- Cactus Joint
How is Peyote/Mescaline Used?
The peyote cactus features protuberances or “buttons” that are cut from the plant and dried. The buttons are then either chewed, soaked in water to produce an ingestible liquid, or ground into a powder and mixed with cannabis or tobacco for smoking.
Mescaline comes in the form of powder, a tablet, a capsule, or liquid that is administered orally. There is also a pure liquid form which can be injected, but this method is not popular. A dose of mescaline is typically between 300-500 mg of the substance, or approximately the amount contained in three to six peyote buttons.
How Long Does Peyote/Mescaline Stay in Your System?
A typical peyote or mescaline trip will last between seven and twelve hours, and the substance will stay in the body for one to three days.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Short-Term Peyote/Mescaline Use?
What are the Short-Term Effects of Peyote/Mescaline Use on the Body?
- Auditory Hallucination
- Increased Blood Pressure
- Increased Body Temperature
- Increased Heart Rate
- Loss of Appetite
- Visual Hallucination
What are the Short-Term Effects of Peyote/Mescaline Use on Behavior?
- Fear of Death
- Fear of Insanity
- Fear of Losing Control
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Long-Term Peyote/Mescaline Addiction?
What are the Long-Term Effects of Peyote/Mescaline Use on the Body?
- Distortions in Perception of Reality
- Fetus Abnormities if Peyote is Ingested (for Pregnant Woman)
- “Flashbacks” or Hallucination Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)
- Short-Term Memory Loss
- Tolerance to Peyote/Mescaline
What are the Long-Term Effects of Peyote/Mescaline Use on Behavior?
- Emotional Swings
- Pleasant Emotions
- Unpleasant Emotions
How to diagnose if you are Addicted to Peyote/Mescaline?
While peyote does not create a physical dependence in users, it is possible to develop a psychological dependence on the drug. It is not uncommon for individuals using peyote to become addicted to the “trips” that are taken. These trips can be a “good trip” (where the user enjoys the experience) or a “bad trip” (where the user hates the experience). The quality of the trip can depend on a variety of factors, including:
- Physical Environment
- Prior Experiences
- Sense of Well Being
- State of Mind
- Strength of Dosage
The user can exhibit one or several of the following characteristics
- Changes in Personality
- Dilated Pupils
- Distorted Perceptions
- Increased Heart Rate
- Increase or Loss of Hunger
What are the Withdrawal Effects of Peyote/Mescaline?
- High Blood Pressure
- Loss of Coordination
- Muscle Spasms
How is Peyote/Mescaline Addiction Treated?
There is no antidote to neutralize the effects of peyote or mescaline. For a person on a peyote trip, the best treatment is to keep them peaceful and stress free. Once the user begins a trip, the person has to continue the trip until the peyote has worn off.
Because peyote or mescaline addiction is psychological rather than physical, there are no life-threatening consequences of withdrawal that must be managed by medical staff. Instead, peyote users can’t stop using the drug simply because of how good the experience feels. It might also be a habit that must be overcome primarily by an exercise of willpower. Treatment for peyote addiction will typically include individual and group therapy and continuing support to encourage new behavior and discourage relapse. Different facilities will have their own treatment methodology, available on an inpatient or outpatient basis, with programs that last between 21 and 90 days. Treatment for peyote abuse take a holistic approach including behavioral therapy, support programs and intensive treatment therapies. The peyote treatment should be personalized for the user and include after treatment support. Even in areas where programs specializing in peyote addiction are not available, successful treatment can be provided by counselors with general training in behavior modification and addiction rehab.
What is the Extent of Peyote/Mescaline Use?
Because many drug surveys focus on addictive drugs such as alcohol, heroin, cocaine, etc., peyote and mescaline are often excluded, or lumped together with other hallucinogens like LSD, psilocybin, and PCP, making it difficult to track actual usage. A 2008 Monitoring the Future Survey revealed that 7.8 percent of high school seniors in the U.S. reported having used hallucinogens other than LSD, including peyote.