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Amphetamines Treatment Centers

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What are Amphetamines?

  • Description of Amphetamines

    Amphetamines are a highly potent group of drugs that includes Levoamphetamine, Dextroamphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, and Methamphetamine. These psychoactive drugs stimulate the central nervous system.  Amphetamines are not the same as Methamphetamine, although they are very similar and people often confuse the two drugs.

    Doctors sometimes will prescribe medication that contains amphetamines with brand names such as DextroStat©, Desoxyn©, Dexedrine©, Adderall©. These drugs are commonly used to treat conditions such as obesity, ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder), ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), and narcolepsy.

    The chemical structure of amphetamine can be changed, and may alternately act as a CNS (Central Nervous System) stimulant or an appetite suppressant. It also modifies cardiovascular actions for certain medications, like Methylphenidate (commonly known as Concerta© or Ritalin©), Phenmetrazine Fenfluramine, or Diethylproprion.

  • What is the Scientific Name of Amphetamines?

    The scientific name for Amphetamines is Methylated Phenylethylamine
  • What is the Chemical Formula of Amphetamines?


What is the Origin of Amphetamines?

A Romanian chemist named Lazar Edeleanu was the first person to synthesize amphetamine in 1887. Initially, the stimulant effects of amphetamine was not noticed. In 1927, a pharmacologist named Gordon Alles tested amphetamine on himself to determine the drug’s effects on the body. Alles discovered that amphetamine could improve the body functions of people who suffered from asthma and other respiratory ailments by acting as a CNS stimulant. Beginning in the 1930s, amphetamine became marketed in the form of an inhaler called Benzedrine© for treating nasal congestion.
There was widespread use of amphetamines by both the Allies and Axis powers in World War II because it increased endurance, improved the mood, as well as increased alertness of the soldiers.
Beginning in the early 1960s, amphetamines began to be widely abused when it was realized that direct intravenous injection of the drug (specifically in the methamphetamine form) resulted in much quicker onset of euphoria as compared to when amphetamine was taken orally.
Amphetamine is Schedule II Drug.

What are the Common Street Names of Amphetamines?

  • Ampes
  • Bennies
  • Benz
  • Benzies
  • Black Pep
  • Black Mollies
  • Blue Mollies
  • Blue Pep
  • Boot Ups
  • Cartwheels
  • Coast to Coast
  • Cross Tops
  • Dexy
  • Eye Openers
  • Eye Poppers
  • Fast Lightening
  • Footballs
  • Get Ups
  • Hearts
  • Jelly Beans
  • Lid Openers
  • Lid Poppers
  • Lightning
  • Oranges
  • Peppy
  • Pick Me Ups
  • Red Pep
  • Rippers
  • Road Dope
  • Snap
  • Sparkles
  • Speed
  • Super Jellies
  • Truck Drivers
  • Truckies
  • Uppers
  • Wake Me Ups
  • Wake Ups

How are Amphetamines Used?

Amphetamine, as well as its counterpart methamphetamine, is either smoked, taken as a pill, snorted after being crushed, or injected intravenously after being dissolved in water.

The more potent form of the drug, methamphetamine, comes in the form of clear or semi-clear crystalline rocks, which are usually called ‘Ice’ or ‘Glass’. Glass and Ice are usually smoked in a glass pipe. When meth users inhale the vaporized drug through a glass pipe, it is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream, without the dangers associated with needles and injections.

Powdered methamphetamine is called crystal meth and is usually injected, inhaled, or consumed orally.

Over the past decades, the way in which the drug is ingested has changed.  In 1993, snorting was the most popular method of administration at 42%, followed by injection, smoking, tablets or capsules, and other methods. In 2003, smoking was the most frequently used route of administration (56%) followed by injection, inhalation, and oral. Research suggests this change is due to the regulation of the methamphetamine production precursor chemicals (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine) which has greatly reduced access to those chemicals.

How Long Do Amphetamines Stay in Your System?

Depending upon the dosage, the effects of Amphetamine can remain in the body for up to 4 hours or more, depending upon various factors including the type of Amphetamine that was taken.

Both cocaine and amphetamine have similar effects on the body, because both drugs induce a heightened state of euphoria as well as greatly increasing alertness. But, cocaine affects the body physiologically for only an hour, while amphetamines can last 4 hours or more.

Many people who use amphetamines often mix them with alcohol or other drugs, which can amplify the effects of alertness as well as increased energy levels. However, mixing stimulant drugs together with depressants, like alcohol, can lead to extremely dangerous side effects like myocardial infarction (heart attack) or even a stroke. Additionally, due to the increased senses of empowerment, well-being, and euphoria causes many users to over consume excessive quantities of alcohol, which has its own dangers, well.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Short-Term Amphetamines Use?

  • What are the Short-Term Effects of Amphetamines Use on the Body?

    • Altered Sexual Behavior
    • Cardiovascular System Failure
    • Constipation
    • Decreased Appetite
    • Decreased Drowsiness
    • Decreased Fatigue
    • Dilated Pupils
    • Dizziness
    • Dry Mouth
    • Euphoria
    • Headache
    • Heightened Alertness
    • Heightened Sense of Well-Being
    • High Body Temperature
    • Hostility
    • Increased Activity
    • Increased Diastolic Blood Pressure
    • Increased Respiration
    • Increased Systolic Blood Pressure
    • Increased Talkativeness
    • Irregular or Increased Heart Rate
    • Nausea
    • Palpitations
    • Shallow Breathing
    • Tremor and Twitching of Small Muscles
  • What are the Short-Term Effects of Amphetamines Use on Behavior?

    • Paranoia
    • Lowering of Social Inhibitions
    • Unrealistic Feelings of Cleverness
    • Unrealistic Feeling of Great Competence
    • Unrealistic Feeling of Great Power

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Long-Term Amphetamines Addiction?

  • What are the Long-Term Effects of Amphetamines Use on the Body?

    • Breathing Difficulty
    • Cardiac Arrhythmias
    • Changes in Mental State
    • Coma
    • Convulsions
    • Death
    • Dizziness
    • Flush Skin
    • Loss of Coordination
    • Malnutrition
    • Mental illness
    • Pale Skin Vitamin Deficiency
    • Physical Collapse
    • Pounding Heartbeat
    • Repetitive Motor Activity
    • Skin Disorders
    • Tiredness
    • Toxic Psychosis
    • Ulcers
    • Weakness
  • What are the Long-Term Effects of Amphetamines Use on Behavior?

    • Behavioral Disorder
    • Mood Changes

How to diagnose if someone is Addicted to Amphetamines?

  • Auditory Hallucinations
  • Erratic Behavior
  • Paranoia
  • Picking at the Skin
  • Schizophrenia like Psychosis
  • Violent Behavior
  • Visual Hallucinations

What are the Withdrawal Effects of Amphetamines?

  • Anxiety
  • Arrhythmia
  • Auditory Hallucinations
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Dehydration
  • Depression
  • Discomfort in the Stomach
  • Drug Cravings for Amphetamine
  • Excessive Hunger
  • Extreme Mood Swings
  • Hallucinations
  • Hypersensitivity to Light
  • Hypersensitivity to Sound
  • Irritability
  • Lack of Coordination
  • Oversleeping
  • Realistic Nightmares
  • Schizophrenia like Psychosis
  • Seizures
  • Sensory Misperception
  • Shakiness
  • Short-Temper
  • Suicidal Tendencies
  • Tachycardia

How is Amphetamines Addiction Treated?

Quitting an addiction to amphetamines is a difficult process. It can also be dangerous due to the potentially serious physical symptoms of withdrawal. Because of these dangers, anyone attempting to detox from amphetamine addiction should do so under the guidance and care of a medical professional.
The optimal environment for amphetamine detox is within an inpatient or residential treatment center, staffed with medical professionals who understand the dangers and symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal who can provide 24 hour supervision and treatment. If any complications arise, a qualified medical professional is best suited to oversee the detox process.
Inpatient, residential, and some intensive outpatient (IOP) rehabilitation centers are equipped with the tools that allow doctors and nurses to monitor vital signs such as temperature and heartbeat, as well as tracking the overall well-being of the patient. If potentially life-threatening medical symptoms occur like spikes in blood pressure or an irregular heartbeat, treatment can be provided to control these withdrawal symptoms without posing any health dangers to the patient.
Professional staff at medically supervised amphetamine withdrawal and detox rehab centers can also provide medications that minimize withdrawal affects making the patient much more comfortable and much more likely to desire to continue with the treatment process.
Some other common methods of treatment include herbal remedies as well as holistic practices such as massage and acupuncture, which many patients find relaxing. By utilizing some of these holistic practices, many amphetamine or methamphetamine detox patients feel that the withdrawal and detox process is much more comfortable and tolerable.

What is the Extent of Amphetamines Use?

The amphetamine group of drugs is the second most commonly used illicit drug (after marijuana). Some studies estimate that the total worldwide users of this group of drugs exceeds the number of users of cocaine and opiates.
Amphetamine use peaked around 1969 to 1970 in the United States. However, in the recent 2 decades amphetamine abuse has surged as evidenced by rehab and treatment centers tracking the admissions rate of users addicted to this group of drugs.
In some studies methamphetamine and amphetamine use, dependence or addiction is present in 181 countries or territories around the world, comprising 99% of the global population of 15 to 64 year olds. However, for 104 of those countries, there were no accurate estimates of prevalence.
The most common method of statistical determination was via school surveys which was used in 74 countries. Surveys of the general population of amphetamine and methamphetamine use were used in 48 countries. There were 9 countries that estimated the prevalence and addiction of the use of amphetamines since 1990, which compromises 8% of the world’s population of those aged 15 to 64 years old.
There was no consistent, accurate estimate of amphetamine usage during the past year. However, all studies indicated that dependence estimates were under 1% for people in that age group.
Complicating matters, different countries and studies used different methodologies, different age groups, and even varying definitions of which drugs are considered to be an amphetamine. Even among developed countries with high incomes who have the resources as well as the infrastructure to do these studies, there were still tremendous variances of the estimates of dependence.
Suffice it to say, though no data on the prevalence of amphetamine use exists, many communities nationwide have begun to change public policy regarding this drug.

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